Broadly, Thomism is the school of thought that grants special authority to the systematic thought of Thomas Aquinas in theological and philosophical issues. More narrowly, Thomism involves the views of those within the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Early Thomism developed in the fourteenth century as the Summa Theologiae replaced Peter Lombard's Sentences as a standard textbook among Dominicans. By the eighteenth century Thomism had stagnated owing to a failure to engage with the philosophical shift to a modern worldview that dispensed with forms, potencies and final causes. In the early nineteenth century some scholars began advocating a neo-Thomism, a move that came to fruition with Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Aeterni Patris (1879), which commended the programmatic use of Aquinas among Roman-Catholic scholars as a response to the challenge of modernity. Initially much of the resulting work was weak in historical sensitivity, but this has been addressed through the work of scholars like Etienne Gilson and Jacques Maritain. Neo-Thomism underwent a further permutation with the work of theologians like Karl Rahner and Bernard Lonergan, who developed a transcendental Thomism that sought greater dialogue with both the Enlightenment and the work of philosophers like Heidegger. The Second Vatican Council ended the monopoly of Thomism so that Roman-Catholic theologians and philosophers are now free to explore various schools of thought including process theology.
   Further reading: Brezik 1981; Grenet 1967; McInerny 1966

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  • Thomism — • In a broad sense, the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Thomism     Thomism …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Thomism — Tho mism, Thomaism Tho ma*ism, n. (Eccl. Hist.) The doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, esp. with respect to predestination and grace. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Thomism — [tō′miz΄əm] n. the theological and philosophical doctrines or system of Saint Thomas Aquinas and his followers Thomist adj., n. Thomistic [tōmis′tik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Thomism — St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225 1274), the eponym of Thomism. Picture by Fra Angelico (c. 1395 1455) …   Wikipedia

  • Thomism — Thomist, n., adj. Thomistic, adj. /toh miz euhm/, n. the theological and philosophical system of Thomas Aquinas. [THOM(AS AQUINAS) + ISM] * * * Philosophical and theological system developed by St. Thomas Aquinas. It holds that the human soul is… …   Universalium

  • Thomism — The philosophy of Aquinas, and its development particularly in the Catholic tradition. See also Neo Thomism …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Thomism —    This term refers to the system of philosophy and theology originally developed by Thomas Aquinas (ca. AD 1225 1274), who utilized Aristotelianism as a basis for elaborating his thought. Although originally suspect, Thomism subsequently gained… …   Glossary of theological terms

  • Thomism — noun Etymology: New Latin Thomista Thomist, from Saint Thomas Aquinas Date: circa 1731 the scholastic philosophical and theological system of St. Thomas Aquinas • Thomist noun or adjective • Thomistic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Thomism — noun The philosophy and theology of …   Wiktionary

  • THOMISM —    the doctrine of THOMAS AQUINAS (q.v. AQUINAS, THOMAS), particularly in reference to predestination and grace …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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